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The project management also known as management or project management is the discipline that guides and integrates the processes of planning, capture, facilitating, organizing talent and manage resources in order to complete all the work required to develop a project and meet scope, within time limits, and defined cost: stress and with good interpersonal climate. All of this requires leadership talents, continually assess and regulate the actions necessary and sufficient (Kerzner, 2013).
Characteristics of Project Management
Goals and objectives (the project must be or become feasible, sustainable and measurable, with talents and resources allocated, without stress and with good working environment and contractual) (Kerzner, 2013).
Schedule of Activities (must have a detailed program of activities with time-or work-plan consonant with scope, goals, talents and resources.)
Complexity manageable (makes the complex simple, inter linking all forward-multiple component elements and interrelationships between them)
Manages resources (specified and achieved availability of talent (knowledge and skills), capital, and human effort in various areas of the organization, community, etc.)
Matrix Organization (define structure, systems, values, symbols, people and talents, assigns responsibilities and resources: talents and achievements vs. Fixed and variable compensation, x ex. Consultant, coach, facilitator, implementer, designer, manager, sponsor, internal customer , etc.) (Meredith, Mantel, 2011).
Communication and control system (manual or automated system for recording and dissemination of documentation and information on progress of the project, specifying deviations and corrective)
Specific Areas Determinants of Success
Active monitoring is a fundamental part of Project Management. It is based on providing adequate visibility to management on project status, to quickly identify any deviation from what was planned in order to make timely decisions to correct, ideally anticipate them to act before they occur and thus avoid or restrain them before they happen (Rosenau, Githens, 2011).Visibility : Refers to the attitude of the leader, in order to always be aware of how well the project and possible deviations from the parameters set as goals ... and regulators corrective future situation ... in design, designed and / or implemented.
Deviations: If there are deviations, should be quantified in terms of time, money, talents and resources, and should quantify the degree of deviation, to determine if possible future return-to-the right way and how to be achieved and at what cost and delay.
Frequency: The faster you identify a deficiency in the easier project will amend it, so recommended weekly analysis and reviews, to understand and evaluate the project status and continuously regulate.
Decision making: After seeing that there is failure to make decisions, to solve the problem or challenge, care must be taken in identifying the causes of delay and / or cost overruns, because sometimes they hide behind other: Do not confuse cause with effect or purpose means Monitoring techniques : The most used tools in Project Management are evaluations, request meetings and accountability, critical and constructive reviews affectionate, reports, software for planning, simulation and control, brainstorming sessions, etc. (Rosenau, Githens, 2011).
The whole team should send weekly reports of progress of tasks and activities, in the most simple and effective way to understand. Reports must attest: Scope, Integration, Communication, Progress, times, costs, productivity (quality, efficiency and effectiveness), Cash Flow / Performance, Risks, Challenges / Problems, Talent and Material Resources among others (Burke, 2003).
According to the IPMA, the projects teams work performed are usually collected for the project itself. Work covers the management and leadership team building, team work itself and group dynamics. Teams are groups of people working together to achieve certain goals
The start of construction of the working groups is usually done through meetings and seminars including the project manager, team members and other stakeholders. The spirit of the group or culture can be achieved by individual motivation, setting team goals and creating social events and support strategies (Burke, 2003).
Problems may arise due to technical difficulties, economic or otherwise. Problems may also occur due to differences in culture and education as well as different interests and ways of working. The development teams should follow a standardized process and performance training.
The project manager must be continually developing the team and its members, from the initial team formation, following the development phase of the project through to completion, at which point the team disbands and the members come to occupy their normal working positions. Teamwork during the work of the members must be continually reviewed by the Project Manager and directly responsible for supervising employees (line manager). When the performance of a team member is below normal, corrective action must be taken.
The IPMA proposes the following steps for proper monitoring of teamwork (Burke, 2003).Training: develop a common sense of belonging to the group with a clear objective.Assignment: assign roles, responsibilities and tasks. Make decisions and resolve conflicts.Standardization: to show how they can work together the various team members. Action: develop interdependencies to produce outstanding results. At the end of the project, the various deliverables to deliver direct supervisor and dissolve the group (Baker, et al., 2008). Documenting the work learned and apply to future projects.
To measure the level of acquisition of this expertise by the project manager, it must undergo evaluation by the IPMA Certification Universal System
There are four levels of competition
Level A: Has successfully directed the management of teamwork for important programs and portfolios of work of an organization or an organizational unit.
Level B: The situations successfully managed a team working on a complex project.
Level C: A situation has successfully managed a team working on a project with limited complexity.
Level D: Has the knowledge required concerning the management of project teams and can apply.
Importance of Communication
Communication is an essential process of project management, from start to finish the project. It must determine (Kerzner, 2013.:
Who communicates what information?
How information is communicated?
How often communicates?
With what degree of detail?
Communicate purposes, publicize goals, an understanding of how to achieve them, share expectations and challenges emotionally, engage and commit to achieving the committed support to achieve fulfilling, thank emphasize compliance and it allows trust who turns, and whoever meets repeatedly is reliable (Kerzner, 2013.
Success in managing projects
The stakeholders of a project
The stakeholders of a project, according to the International Project Management Association (IPMA), are the people or groups interested in the performance and / or success of the project, or are constrained by the project (Kerzner, 2013.
The project manager must identify all stakeholders, what their interests and sort them according to their importance to the project. To help manage stakeholders, project managers can develop internal and external networks, both formal and informal, between project partners (eg companies, organizations, managers, experts, employees and opinion leaders). All stakeholders can influence the project, either directly or indirectly. The interests of the parties concerned, experience in project management of the organization, standards, trends and power influence the way the project is conceived and developed. Project managers must carry out an updating of the information related to the stakeholders and the people who represent such parties (Kerzner, 2013.The IPMA proposes the following steps for proper management of stakeholders.Identify and prioritize the interests of stakeholders.
Analyze your interests and needs.
Communicate to stakeholders what their requirements are met or not in the project.
Develop a strategy to deal with the management of stakeholders.
Include the interests and expectations of stakeholders regarding the requirements, objectives, scope, deliverables, schedule and project planning costs.
Sort, depending on the risk, threats and opportunities that represent different stakeholders for the project.
Identify the decision process to follow between the project team and stakeholders.
Ensuring the satisfaction of the stakeholders in each project phase
Carry out management plan stakeholders.
Run, communicate and manage change related to planning stakeholders.
Documenting lessons learned for application to future projects
To measure the level of acquisition of this expertise by a project manager, it must undergo evaluation by the IPMA Certification Universal System.
Communication between the various stakeholders of a project is critical to its success. According to the Project Management Institute(PMI) in the PMBOK , the Communications Management Project is the responsibility of the Project Manager related to the fact generate, collect, distribute, store, retrieve information needed for communications between the parties interested in the project and the organization. There should be plenty of communication between stakeholders and the project manager (Stark, 2011).
Risks and opportunities
The risks and opportunities of a project are found in all life cycle stages of the same, from inception to project closure. The decision-making to the risks and opportunities are essential to project success The project manager is responsible for keeping the entire team working proactively, must in turn be alert to the risks and opportunities to involve stakeholders in the resolution process with the help of experts and consultants that support different project risks. A technique used to minimize the risks, is based on the reduction of uncertainty in any estimate when broken down into various parts of an item, activity or project phase (Stark, 2011).
The sum of the variances of the estimates of the parts of an item or project phase is smaller than the variance of the total. To reduce the variation of the estimated cost of the project, the expenditure items with greater variation decompose to reduce the uncertainty of the estimates. The rupture process is repeated successively until the variances of all cost components are below an acceptable limit. The same technique applies to the estimates in the duration of activities that determine the project schedule in order to reduce uncertainty in the estimation of the duration of the project (Kerzner, 2013).
The qualitative assessment of risks and opportunities according to their level of importance as a previous classification based on their impact and likelihood of occurrence, is a key strategy to address the different decisions to eliminate and mitigate the risk to through a contingency plan. The contingency plan for decision-making to the risks and opportunities can affect many processes of the project. The contingency plan has to be controlled and must be updated when new risks and opportunities emerge (Meredith, Mantel, 2011).
The quantification of risk and opportunity assessment generates a numeric value to measure the expected effect thereof.
Trees Monte Carlo analysis and the decision and scenario planning are examples of powerful quantitative risk and opportunity assessment techniques.
The management of projects is the discipline of organizing and managing resources so that you can finish all the work required in the project within the scope, time and cost defined.
Project management, many times, is the responsibility of a single individual. This individual seldom participates directly in the activities that produce the end result. Instead strives to maintain the progress and interaction productive mutual various parts so that the risk of failure is decreased overall. Project management has as objective main planning; monitoring and controlling .Usually project managers are responsible for some or all of the project activities:
As for the people concerned, a conflict is a fact of human nature itself, where people tend to be conflicts. Therefore, every manager must understand the problems and conflicts between people are inevitable and must face them as skill and success. When conflicts arise with any person acting in an inappropriate manner, the director of advising given that the problem is the behavior and not the person, reprimand in private and not in front of others, help expecting more from it. Another important factor is to establish proper communication with the client and ensure that the producer and the consumer develop a common understanding of the objectives of the project, so the conflict will be lower. It is important to take the needs of the end user and that all team members are involved in the project.
To start the process, during the process and after which he should measure the difference between the state sought, the progression in his achievement and actual or reached the end of the most appropriate measures to take in every moment and to evaluate new alternatives or new strategies or new policies or new goals, therefore, once defined the main factors causing problems within a project, it is important to establish the steps to successfully troubleshooting.
1. Baker, B. N., Murphy, D. C., & Fisher, D. (2008). Factors affecting project success. Project Management Handbook, Second Edition, 902-919.
2. Burke, R. (2003). Project management: planning and control techniques (Vol. 3). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
3. Kerzner, H. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. Wiley.
4. Kerzner, H. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. Wiley.
5. Meredith, J. R., & Mantel Jr, S. J. (2011). Project management: a managerial approach. Wiley.
6. Rosenau, M. D., & Githens, G. D. (2011). Successful project management: a step-by-step approach with practical examples. Wiley.
7. Stark, J. (2011). Product lifecycle management (pp. 1-16). Springer London