NURSE AND HEALTH EDUCATION
Nurse And Health Education
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Nurse And Health Education
The term "health education" is often used, but what is its true meaning? Nursing Service Guide 86/21 bis 3 proposes a definition: "These are interventions that are to give a person or a group, information, advice or assistance to enable him to understand what can maintain, restore and promote their health and change their behaviour." Care and education are therefore the primary, secondary and / or tertiary level in order to achieve optimum health. The health education is the acquisition of knowledge, know-how and learning behaviour vis-à-vis health problems individual or collective. It is practiced in preventive and curative (reduction of risk factors, early detection of health problems, relapse prevention). Care and education are therefore based on different concepts such as health and nursing care.
According to WHO "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." However, this "state of complete well-being" depends on several factors and then assumes that health is not acquired. In the catchment area of Nanterre, a large number of patients have certainly never experienced health. We must therefore take into account the environment and the basic needs of every person to reach the state of "complete wellness" proper to each. Providing care and education in the field of health therefore implies taking into account the whole person and the environment in which it operates. It is necessary to take care of all medico-social problems of the person that she is unique and requires personalised care to suit each case. Networking care finds its raison d'être. Indeed, the promotion of health for the entire medical and paramedical personnel, but also social workers, legal assistants, dieticians. FDI should therefore educate, advise and lead to a more appropriate forum if necessary. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. It is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.
The nurses perform diverse missions and respond to various stresses. The activities are in the fields of public health and safety. However, they are not formalised and sometimes difficult to identify. The scope of intervention of nurses is not based on specific texts. Activities fall under the regulatory provisions relating to the exercise of the profession of nursing:
Scope Of The Work, Responsibilities And Functions/h5>
The nurses involved in different areas in collaboration with the medical inspectors generally have role technical surveys, opinions in their jurisdiction. Their knowledge and approach to public health issues makes it valuable their participation in multidisciplinary teams. Their main missions are in the following areas.
- Monitoring and alert
- Promotion, health education and the fight against exclusion
- Planning and control of healthcare provision
They are sometimes solicited to initiatives of Directors of Health and Social Affairs for activities under the control of the legality and enforcement, such as:
- Control inspection and evaluation with other professionals
- Technical advice, management
What is the role of the nurse in health education?
The nurse is a key figure in the life of the health education student. Interlocutor for people’s health issues and prevention, it is a valuable intermediate for the teaching staff and parents alike.
Teach health educationists to be more responsible
Since 2006, CESC (Committees of health education and citizenship) are established in all schools and colleges. They work in the development and the implementation of a joint project in their school, to teach students how to behave responsibly vis-à-vis themselves, other and their environment. Under the component "health" of these goals, nurses play a key role
The action of the nurse remains quite individualised, personal solicitations over the students or teachers, who can also alert the difficulties of a child. In any event, this mission will respect professional secrecy nurses, graduates of state are subject.
"When we detect a problem in a child, Beatrice tells nurse in a city school in the Paris suburbs, the priority is to create trust between him and us. Then, if we consider it necessary that his family is informed of the problem, including whether supported, notify us, but only if the child is okay."
Nursing is broadly defined as "a careful application to someone or something." The word takes care of the sense of "means by which strives to make health a patient". They focus on the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying. They also include the defence, promotion of a healthy environment, research, participation in the development of health policy and management of health systems and patients, as well as health education.
Nursing Is Traditionally Provided By Nurses
By the World Health Organisation
“The mission of nursing in society is to help individuals, families and groups to determine and achieve their full physical, mental and social development and achieve in the context of the environment in which they live and work, all in accordance with a code of ethics strict. This requires that nurses learn and perform functions relating to the maintenance and promotion of health as well as prevention of the disease. Nursing also includes the planning and implementation of curative care and rehabilitation, and involve physical, mental and social life in that they affect health, disease, disability and death. Nurses allow the active participation of the individual, his family and friends, social group and community, appropriately in all aspects of health care, and thus encourage independence and self-determination. Nurses also work as a partner with members of other professions involved in the delivery of health services.”
By The Pioneers Of Nursing
First theoretical foundations established by Florence Nightingale in 1859, the definitions developed by the leaders in contemporary nursing, nursing is defined as a practice in itself a science but also an art moral. Florence Nightingale says in her book of reference (Nightingale, 1860) that nursing must ensure "to put the patient in the best possible conditions to promote the work of nature."
In 1933, Effie J. Taylor offers the following definition of the nature of nursing (Taylor, (1934) "the adaptation of the prescribed therapeutic and preventive treatment for physical and psychological needs specific person" and complete this definition by providing the shade "The meaning of nursing can be known only through the ideals of love, sympathy, knowledge and culture expressed by the practice methods and relationships specific to the art of healing.”
In 1960, Virginia Henderson (1994) described nursing as a response to the basic needs of every individual is meant by basic need, the vital need to own every human being healthy or sick.
The "take-care" of the other
In the Middle Ages, the purpose of "taking care of his neighbour" is closely linked to the ideology of religion and the Church. Caregivers adopt guidelines similar to those of the religion of Christ: home of the humble, the afflicted mercy, and thereafter, the ideal of poverty is added to that charity. In the sixteenth century, the care is not medical care but still more assistance to the needy, beggars and passers. Major epidemics and war in the Middle Ages influenced the organisation of care for the sick in religious congregations (including the Order of St. John of Jerusalem) who founded the first infirmaries where the care of a vocation "rescue and care."
In English culture, one of the oldest English meaning of the word "nursing" found in the fourteenth century also mentions a woman employed to breast-feed and take care of young children (The Oxford English Dictionary, 1989), "nurse" meaning also "nurse." In From the mid-nineteenth century under the influence of Florence Nightingale, the term nurse refers, in Anglo-Saxon countries, a nurse. In the fifteenth century, the idea developed to address or inform someone else, not just children (The Oxford English Dictionary, 1989). The philosophy of modern nursing developed in the latter sense, the idea of feeding referring to the broader concept of personal assistance and the promotion of quality of life. In the eighteenth century appears the notion of "governing the sick" with the first book designed to instruct all charitable persons who provide care for their fellows mothers, daughters, sisters, priests campaign, the ladies. Before him, in the last century, Saint Vincent de Paul, Louise de Marillac women gave instruction to provide home care and assist patients in spiritual Confraternities of Charity. In 1785, Colombier and Doublet released a report titled: Instruction on how to govern fools and their healing work in asylums for them. In 1786, Joseph Carrère, physician to the King in turn publishes a manifesto in favour of the education of nurses, not to govern but to serve the sick. Jean Baptiste Pussin, governor of the Bicêtre insane and crazy, will develop the idea of a more human relationship for all these unfortunates. A few years later, in 1795, the famous alienist Philippe Pinel, they will release the insane from their chains. After the Revolution, including Condorcet good men and Abbé Grégoire will also advocate for the education of people who care and the care they provide. (Magnon, 2007/2008)
The Modern Nursing
The evolution of knowledge and expertise has developed since the late nineteenth century exploration of new techniques or nursing actions in parallel in the history of medicine. The twentieth century saw the development of studies in nursing have provided the basis for the dissemination of knowledge. The acquisition of knowledge and teaching practice, traditionally transmitted orally, are structured as classes taught by general physicians or nurses trainers. During times of war (First, Crimean War and especially World War II), the shortage of doctors is conferred to a shift nurses acts usually reserved for medical practitioners. Nursing are learned and realised then diversified to invasive procedures and widen simple comfort care or hygiene provided to patients.
There are many theories of how people learn. This section is going to briefly review just some of these; androgogy, constructivist theory, experiential learning, social learning theory and situated learning theory.
Androgogy is a theory proposed by Knowles (1990). He argued that adults are a neglected species in education, with most educational research being about children's education. He developed his theory of androgogy to explain how adults learn.
Constructivist theory: As nursing practice is learned in a social and cultural background it is relevant to consider if there is a relationship between cognitive and social constructivism.
Learning theories, such as experiential learning, social learning and situated learning theory, build on constructivist theory, and suggest a level of negotiation of understanding. It could be argued that reflection is the main conceptual tool for both constructing meaning and challenging that meaning. (Magnon, 2007/2008)
Today, the concept of nursing care is grounded in professional practice on the one hand and on the other hand, in the philosophical, conceptual models and theoretical nursing. Nursing, the terminology was officially used for the first session of the Committee of Experts of Nursing WHO in 1950, the first code of ethics was published in 1953, then tend to erect a science. In 1954, Martha Rogers, a young director of nursing department at New York University College of Nursing, developed its own research program and dealt with nursing as a science in itself.
1. Henderson, V. (1994) The Nature Of Nursing, Ed. Intereditions, Paris, p.235
2. Magnon, R. (2007/2008) "The leading figures of Nursing" The Journal of Nurse No. 134.135, 2007 to 137.138, 2008
3. Nightingale, F. (1860) Notes On Nursing: What Nursing Is, What Nursing Is Not, D. Appleton And Company, New-York
4. Taylor, E. J. (1934) "Of What is the Nature of Nursing" American Journal of Nursing 34:476
5. The Oxford English Dictionary (1989) “Nurse”, 2nd ed. vol. 10, Oxford University Press (ISBN 0198611862), p. 603-604